Climate change is a topic of worIdwide concern. Nevertheless, climate change, not being seen as a priority amongst other issues, has not yet been strongly incorporated into the environmental or economic policy agendas of developing countries. Nevertheless, evidence shows that some of the most adverse effects of climate change will be experienced by developing countries whose populations are the most vulnerable and least likely to be able to adapt to climate change. For instance, although Latín America countries represent only 9 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions, the social and economic impact of those emissions is significantly greater than in developed and emergent countries. This phenomenon is called "double inequity" where the impact of climate change is felt most deeply by poorest societies who are not the main emitters.
In this respect, it is important that developing countries, especially South American countries, integrate climate change issues into their decision-making process, where energy policy plays an important role in their development. The main drivers behind contemporary energy policy are.